10 Problems faced by Pakistan after Independence
The date of August14,1947, serves as a reminder of a historical occurrence that led to the birth of one of the greatest nations in history. It would be impossible to discuss all of Pakistan’s initial issues with independence in a single article. The majority of Pakistan’s initial issues following independence were purposefully fabricated to undermine the fledgling state. Even if there were other issues besides partition, building a new administration across so many hostile borders was challenging. In conclusion, the creation of Pakistan and its independence were not easy to achieve and required the sacrifice of tens of thousands of people.
Here are 10 problems faced by Pakistan after independence
Division of Assets
Assets were divided between Pakistan and India by the British administration. Pakistan received a portion of $75 billion under the terms of the agreement. Initially, just 20 crores were sent to Pakistan. In addition to these, Pakistan was to receive military supplies and a record. The Indian government’s opposition to the transfer of partitioned assets caused Pakistan a lot of problems.
When India shut down Pakistan’s river headworks on April 1st morning,1948, Pakistan began to experience flooding. Punjab’s crops suffered serious damage as a result of this. India started charging Pakistan for the water it uses. Pakistan sought the assistance of the UN to find a lasting solution to this issue, and on September19,1960, in Karachi, a pact known as the “Indus Waters Treaty” was signed.
Capital of Country
After gaining independence, Pakistan faced various issues, one of which was the lack of developed cities compared to India. As a result, the capital cities available to Pakistani leaders were limited. The authorities and officials from Delhi travelled to Karachi to set up the capital after Karachi was picked as the location. There were not enough books, offices, or furnishings. During that difficult time, several government offices were also built in military barracks. More specifically, on August14,1967, Ayub Khan’s control over Pakistan saw Islamabad become the country’s second capital after 20 years of separation.
Unfair boundary by Cyril Redcliffe
To partition some provinces into Pakistan and India, a commission was created. Since the majority of British officers opposed the separation, they made every effort to undermine Pakistan. India was a country Viceroy Mountbatten had a soft spot for. As a result, Pakistan lost many areas with a Muslim majority, such as Ferozpor, Gordaspor, and portions of Kashmir and Jalandhar.
Killing of Muslim Refugees in India
Muslims living on the Indian side of Punjab began migrating to Pakistani Punjab as soon as the division of Punjab was established. Sikhs and Hindus began murdering Muslims. Children and men were slaughtered. Women were raped. Muslim trains and caravans heading to Pakistan were completely destroyed. In less than a month, this led to more than 5 lac deaths.
The issue of Refugees
Nearly 65 lac persons are said to have migrated to Pakistan.52 lac of those individuals migrated to Punjab. Making long-term plans for the resettlement of so many people was a difficult issue for Pakistan’s government. Pakistan established refugee camps for the migrants and gave them food and medical care despite its meagre resources.
Forceful annexation of princely states by India
Despite a coastal princely state’s desire to join Pakistan, which is located 300 km from Karachi, India refused to recognize the state’s choice and therefore forcibly seized control of India. India’s action went directly against the idea that states should be free to choose whether to join Pakistan or India.
When Nizam of Hyderabad chose not to join Pakistan and India, India once again broke the rules of state annexation. Additionally, India seized Hyderabad by force.
Problem of Language
More than 70 different languages were spoken in Pakistan at the time of its independence. However, only Urdu was accorded the title of national language in the 1956 constitution. This incited hatred in the Bengali residents of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), leading to numerous riots and ultimately the creation of Bangladesh. The riots resulted in deaths because the leaders handled the situation poorly.
Death of Quaid E Azam and Liaqat Ali Khan
Quaid-e-Azam, nearly a year after Pakistan’s independence, passed away. In1951, Nawab Zada Liaqat Ali Khan was killed in Company Bagh Rawalpindi as he addressed a throng of more than a million people. Pakistan was left without true leaders as a result of the tragic deaths of these two leaders. Bureaucracy and dishonest politicians were to blame for the chaos that engulfed the nation. The early deaths of Quaid and Liaquat Ali Khan, according to experts, are what caused Pakistan to veer off the path toward becoming a welfare state.
Pakistan grew worried about safeguarding its borders as soon as it gained independence because of issues on the eastern and western frontiers. Afghanistan was the sole nation to reject Pakistan’s membership in the UN and refused to acknowledge Pakistan in the West. For a number of reasons, the situation with India in the East was likewise not favorable. Additionally, there was a dearth of cutting-edge military gear. Thus, protecting Pakistan’s borders at that time became a major issue.
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