CPR (short for cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is a first aid technique that can be used if someone is not breathing properly or if their heart has stopped.
- CPR is a skill that everyone can learn-you don’t need to be a health professional to do it.
- Try to Stay clam if you need to do CPR.
- Performing CPR may save a person’s life.
- If you know CPR, you might save the life of a family member or friend.
Start CPR as soon as possible:
CPR involves chest compression and mouth-to-mouth (rescue breaths) that helps circulate blood and oxygen in the body. This can help keep the brain and vital organs alive.
You should start CPR if a person:
- is unconscious
- is not responding to you
- is not breathing, or is breathing abnormally
How to Perform CPR- adults:
Watch this video about how to perform CPR on an Adults, or read the DRS ABCD action plan and step-by-step instruction below. Source BBC news and details steps.
Follow these steps before starting CPR. (Use the Phrase “doctor’s ABCD”- DRS ABCD- to help you remember the first letter of each step.)
Letter Representing what to do:
D Danger Ensure that the Patient and everyone in the
area is safe. Do not put yourself or others at
risk. Remove the danger or the patient.
R Response Look for a response from the patient- loudly
ask their name, squeeze their shoulder.
S send for help If there is no response, phone triple zero (000)
or ask another person to call. Do not leave the
A Airway Check their mouth and throat is clear. Remove
any abvious blockages in the mouth or nose,
such as vomit, blood, food or loose teeth, than
gently title their head back and lift their chin.
B Breathing Check if the person is breathing abnormally or
not breathing at all after 10 seconds. If they are
breathing normally, place them in the recovery
position and stay with them.
C CPR if they are still not breathing normally, start CPR.
Start Chest compressions as soon as possible after
calling for help.
D Defibrillation Attach an Automated External Defibrillation (AED) to
the patient if one is available and there is someone else
who is able to bring it. Do not get one yourself if that
would mean leaving the patient alone.
Carry out chest compressions:
- Place the patient on their back and Kneel beside them.
- Place the heel of your hand on the lower half of the breastbone, in the center of the person’s chest. Place your other hand on top of the first hand and interlock your fingers.
- Position yourself above the patient’s chest.
- Using your body weight (not just your arms) and keeping yours arms straight, press straight down on their chest by one third of the chest depth.
- Release the pressure. Pressing down and releasing is compression.
Open the person’s airway by placing one hand on the forehead or top of the head and your other other hand under the chin to tilt and head back.
Pinch the soft part of the nose closed with your index finger and thumb.
open the person’s mouth with your thumb and fingers.
Take a breath and place your lips over the patient’s mouth, ensuring a good seal.
Blow steadily into their mouth for about 1 second, watching for the chest rise.
Following the breath, look at the Patient’s chest and watch for the chest to fall. Listen
and feel for signs that air is being expelled. Maintain the head tilt and chin lift position.
If their chest does not rise, check the mouth again and remove any obstructions. Make sure the head is tilted and chin lifted to open the airway. Check that yours and the patients mouth are sealed together and the nose is closed so that air cannot easily escape. Take another breath and repeat.
Give 30 compression followed by 2 breaths, known as “30:2”. Aim for 5 sets of 30:2 in about 2 minutes (if only doing compressions about 100-120 compressions per minutes).
keep going with 30 compressions then 2 breath until.
One person recovers-they start moving, breathing normally, coughing or taking- then put them in the recovery position; or
it is impossible for you to continue because you are exhaused; or
the ambulances arrives and a paramedic takes over over a tells you to step.
How to perform CPR-children over 1 year
Use these instruction only if the child’s chest is too small for you to use both hands to do chest compressions. otherwise, use the instructions of adult CPR above.